# Plot the frequency distribution for “Age at Enrollment” by hand or by using SPSS, statistics

**Question description**

Complete Exercise 10 and 26 in *Statistics for Nursing Research: A Workbook for Evidence-Based Practice, *and submit as directed by the instructor.

Exercise 10

1. What are the frequency and percentage of the COPD patients in the severe airﬂow limitation group who are employed in the Eckerblad et al. (2014) study?

2. What percentage of the total sample is retired? What percentage of the total sample is on sick leave?

3. What is the total sample size of this study? What frequency and percentage of the total sample were still employed? Show your calculations and round your answer to the nearest whole percent.

4. What is the total percentage of the sample with a smoking history—either still smoking or former smokers? Is the smoking history for study participants clinically important? Provide a rationale for your answer.

5. What are pack years of smoking? Is there a signiﬁcant difference between the moderate and severe airﬂow limitation groups regarding pack years of smoking? Provide a rationale for your answer.

6. What were the four most common psychological symptoms reported by this sample of patients with COPD? What percentage of these subjects experienced these symptoms? Was there a signiﬁcant difference between the moderate and severe airﬂow limitation groups for psychological symptoms?

7. What frequency and percentage of the total sample used short-acting β 2 -agonists? Show your calculations and round to the nearest whole percent.

8. Is there a signiﬁcant difference between the moderate and severe airﬂow limitation groups regarding the use of short-acting β 2 -agonists? Provide a rationale for your answer.

9. Was the percentage of COPD patients with moderate and severe airﬂow limitation using short-acting β 2 -agonists what you expected? Provide a rationale with documentation for your answer.

10. Are these ﬁndings ready for use in practice? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Exercise 26

1. Plot the frequency distribution for “Age at Enrollment” by hand or by using SPSS.

2. How would you characterize the skewness of the distribution in Question 1—positively skewed, negatively skewed, or approximately normal? Provide a rationale for your answer.

3. Compare the original skewness statistic and Shapiro-Wilk statistic with those of the smaller dataset ( n = 15) for the variable “Age at First Arrest.” How did the statistics change, and how would you explain these differences?

4. Plot the frequency distribution for “Years of Education” by hand or by using SPSS.

5. How would you characterize the kurtosis of the distribution in Question 4—leptokurtic, mesokurtic, or platykurtic? Provide a rationale for your answer.

6. What is the skewness statistic for “Age at Enrollment”? How would you characterize the magnitude of the skewness statistic for “Age at Enrollment”?

7. What is the kurtosis statistic for “Years of Education”? How would you characterize the magnitude of the kurtosis statistic for “Years of Education”?

8. Using SPSS, compute the Shapiro-Wilk statistic for “Number of Times Fired from Job.” What would you conclude from the results?

9. In the SPSS output table titled “Tests of Normality,” the Shapiro-Wilk statistic is reported along with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. Why is the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic inappropriate to report for these example data?

10. How would you explain the skewness statistic for a particular frequency distribution being low and the Shapiro-Wilk statistic still being signiﬁcant at p < 0.05?