PSYCHOLOGY Final Exam
1. Which of these is true of brain development?
Dendrite branching accelerates during infancy
Myelination takes place during infancy
There is an increase in synaptic connections during childhood
All of the above are true
1. A(n) _____ is any agent that causes a birth defect.
1. According to Piaget, assimilation occurs when individuals _____.
adjust their schemas to new information
incorporate new information into existing schemas
are deprived of parental warmth and sensitivity
are insecurely attached to their caregivers
1. Which of the following is the correct sequence of the stages of prenatal development?
Conception, zygote, embryonic period, fetal period
Conception, embryonic period, zygote, fetal period
Conception, fetal period, embryonic period, zygote
Conception, fetal period, zygote, embryonic period
1. Which theory of aging has focused on the role of chronic stress in reducing immune system functioning?
Erikson’s theory of socioemotional development
Hormonal stress theory
1. Which researcher tracked individuals who had experienced bereavement, and looked at their patterns of grief?
1. Four-month-old baby Oscar is a participant in a preferential looking experiment. Researchers show Oscar two photos, one of which is of his mother’s face, and the other which is of a female stranger’s face. The photos are presented repeatedly in differing locations, and the amount of time Oscar spends looking at the photos is recorded. What will researchers conclude if Oscar shows a reliable preference for his mother’s face over the stranger’s face?
Oscar can discriminate his mother’s face from a stranger’s face.
Oscar is afraid of strangers.
Oscar likes strangers as much as his mothers.
Oscar can’t see very well.
1. Which of the following refers to a period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that occurs mainly in early adolescence?
1. Which of the following represents the correct chronological sequence of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?
Sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations
Sensorimotor, concrete operations, preoperations, formal operations
Preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations, sensorimotor
Concrete operations, formal operations, sensorimotor, preoperations
1. Which of the following is true about the concrete operational stage of reasoning?
Adolescents can conceive of hypothetical possibilities in this stage.
This stage denotes ability of an adolescent to systematically deduce, or come to a conclusion about, the best path for solving the problem.
A kind of abstract, logical reasoning occurs in this cognitive stage.
One important skill at this stage of reasoning is the ability to classify or divide things into different sets or subsets and to consider their interrelations.
1. Benjamin loves putting together puzzles. He has recently mastered putting together a 10-piece Sesame Street puzzle. His mother claps at his accomplishment but wants to continue challenging Benjamin just beyond his current abilities. The next time they play, she gives Benjamin a 15-piece puzzle and offers some guidance on how to sort the pieces out. According to Vygotsky, Benjamin’s mother provides _____ that allows Benjamin’s cognitive abilities to be built higher and higher.
1. Juan is a child with low activity level and tends to withdraw from new situations. He is inflexible, and displays low mood intensity. Juan is said to have what type of temperament?
1. Which of these is not an example of an ability that is present at birth?
1. A(n)_____ is a mental framework for understanding what it means to be male or female in one’s culture.
1. If children cannot grasp the concept of conservation, they are unable to _____.
accommodate in later life
see things from the point of view of another person
recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape
retain earlier schemas when confronted with new experiences
1. Neuroleptic drugs _____.
are antianxiety drugs
reduce schizophrenic symptoms
effectively block serotonin activity in the brain
1. A therapist who uses cognitive restructuring believes that _____ are the causes of abnormal behavior.
1. Which therapist is most closely associated with client-centered therapy?
1. _____ treat depression by inhibiting reabsorption of serotonin in the brain.
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
1. The therapeutic alliance is the relationship between the therapist and _____.
the American Psychiatric Association
the local government
other professional therapists who practice in the same state
1. John does not have much money, but requires the help of a mental health professional. He might best be served by contacting a _____.
self-help support group
1. Validation, reframing, structural change, and detriangulation are techniques commonly used in _____.
1. Lithium is commonly used to treat _____.
panic attack disorder
1. Tranquilizers are _____ drugs.
1. According to the psychoanalytic approach to psychotherapy, which of the following is an essential part of the job of a psychotherapist?
Point out inconsistencies in the patient’s thoughts and behaviors
Encourage the patient to explore his or her potential for growth
Encourage the client to assess his or her own problems through client-centered therapy
Interpret the disguised revelations of the unconscious mind to the patient
1. One potential side effect of neuroleptic drugs is _____, a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary random movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and mouth, as well as extensive twitching of the neck, arms, and legs.
1. _____ is very directive, persuasive, and confrontational. In contrast, _____ involves more of an open-ended dialogue between the therapist and the individual.
Beck’s cognitive therapy / rational-emotive behavior therapy
Rational-emotive behavior therapy / Beck’s cognitive therapy
Client-centered therapy / behavior therapy
Integrative therapy / psychodynamic therapy
1. Which form of treatment, developed by Moniz and used widely by Freeman, involves severing neural fibers connecting parts of the brain?
1. A test taker of the _____ is asked to tell a story about each of the pictures, including events leading up to the situation described, the characters’ thoughts and feelings, and the way the situation turns out.
Thematic Apperception Test
empirically keyed test
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
1. Gladys is a therapist who is constantly reminding her clients that people have a natural capacity for personal growth and positive qualities. Gladys likely endorses the _____ of personality.
1. Trait theories of personality _____.
state that situational factors override personal characteristics
focus on the role of the unconscious
take a more optimistic view of human nature than humanistic psychologists do
examine personal characteristics that are stable across situations
1. Which of the following neurotransmitters is associated with extraversion?
1. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was created by _____.
1. Adler’s view that people are motivated by purposes and goals and that perfection, not pleasure, is thus the key motivator in human life is known as _____.
social cognitive theory
1. A(n) _____ is a type of self-report test that is created by first identifying two groups that are
known to be different.
thematic apperception test
empirically keyed test
Rorschach inkblot test
1. “Personology” refers to _____.
an old, outdated term for personality psychology
the study of the whole person
the study of how individuals operate within groups
the study of healthy, well-adjusted individuals
1. Which of the following perspectives emphasizes that personality is primarily unconscious?
Social cognitive perspectives
Personological and life story perspectives
1. _____ are enduring characteristics of our personality. _____ are briefer or more temporary experiences.
States / Traits
Traits / States
Conditions of worth / Archetypes
Archetypes / Conditions of worth
1. According to Rogers, we are all born with a need for_____, or a need to be liked, loved, and accepted by those around us.
unconditional positive regard
conditions of worth
the collective unconscious
1. Alex is shy and keeps to himself most of the time. Alex would score low on what trait?
1. According to Bandura’s concept of _____ determinism, the person, the person’s behavior, and the environment all influence one another.
1. What happened within the Stanford Prison Study?
The experiment ran for the full two weeks for which it was scheduled
The experiment was cut off after 6 days because the prisoners and guards didn’t care about their roles
The experiment was cut off after six days because of concerns for participant safety
The experiment was cut off after guards administered 450 volt shocks to prisoners
1. According to attribution theory, attributions vary along which of the following dimensions?
1. When thinking about a situation, the observer is more likely to think about ______ factors, while the actor is more likely to view it in terms of ______ factors.
Personality / situational
Situational / personality
External / situational
Internal / personality
1. The _____ is the overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way we do.
fundamental attribution error
false consensus effect
1. The effects of others on our behavior can take the form of _____, imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior, emotions, and ideas.
1. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobsen conducted a study in 1968. The researchers told grade-school teachers that five students were likely to be “late bloomers” – that these students had high levels of ability that would likely emerge over time. In reality, the students had been randomly selected by the researchers. Nonetheless, a year later, the researchers found that teachers’ expectations for the “late bloomers” were reflected in student performance – the academic performance of the “late bloomers” was beyond that of other students. The results from this study demonstrate which of the following concepts?
Cognitive dissonance theory
The butterfly effect
The self-fulfilling prophecy
The self-serving bias
1. You watch as another student stumbles and drops her books in the hall. According to the fundamental attribution error, how would you explain the student’s behavior?
She must have tripped over something.
She is a clumsy person.
She couldn’t help it; there were too many books to carry.
She was trying to get out of someone else’s way.
1. When people try to convince Alan to stop smoking, he replies, “It’s not dangerous, my Uncle Bob smoked all his life and lived until he was 93.” This statement, which is an example of self-justification, illustrates Alan’s attempt to reduce _____.
the self-serving bias
the fundamental attribution error
1. Central route persuasion _____.
involves the use of non-message factors, such as the source’s credibility and attractiveness
involves engaging someone thoughtfully with a sound, logical argument
involves emotional appeals
1. _____ refers to the tendency to take credit for one’s own successes and to deny responsibility for one’s own failures.
1. Social loafing refers to the _____.
tendency for people to exert less effort when working in groups than when working alone
tendency for people to exert more effort when working in groups than when working alone
tendency to spend more time being productive when in the company of one’s peers
social norm that obligates the general public to help those who may not be completely able to help themselves (e.g., children and the elderly)
1. Which is an example of the peripheral route in persuasion?
Sharing data on the issue
Providing facts on the issue
Appealing to the emotions of the individual
Using logic and reason
1. In which type of culture is conformity stronger?
1. Chad regularly experiences motor tension, hyperactivity, and apprehensive expectations and thoughts. It is likely that Chad suffers from a(n) _____.
1. _____ is a mood disorder that is characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania, an overexcited, unrealistically optimistic state.
Major depressive disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder
1. Individuals with bulimia nervosa tend to have _____ of perfectionism and _____ of self-efficacy.
high levels / high levels
high levels / low levels
low levels / high levels
low levels / low levels
1. In the film A Beautiful Mind, John Nash hears and sees people who are not actually there. These sensations are examples of _____.
1. In 1973 Rosenhan conducted a study in which eight healthy individuals were committed to a psychiatric hospital. What did the results of this study demonstrate?
College students are very susceptible to mental health issues.
Doctors are always correct in their diagnosis of Schizophrenia.
Once a person has been labeled with a psychological disorder, that label affects how others perceive everything else he or she does.
If you are treated for Schizophrenia at an early age, you are likely to recover fully.
1. Anne, a mother of two young children, developed amnesia, traveled across the country, and assumed a new identity as an accountant. When her husband and children tracked her down several months later, she had no recollection of her earlier life. Anne would likely be diagnosed with _____.
borderline personality disorder
antisocial personality disorder
1. Which of these reflects a change included in the newest (fifth) edition of the DSM?
The addition of Asperger’s Syndrome
The new edition does not allow a diagnosis of major depression for those suffering grief over the death of a loved one
The addition of Disruptive Mood Regulation Disorder
Some of the diagnostic criteria for Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder have been made more strict
1. Individuals who suffer from anorexia nervosa weigh less than _____ of what is considered normal for age and height and refuse to maintain weight at a healthy level.
1. Which of the following was formerly called multiple personality disorder?
Dissociative identity disorder
1. _____ is characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and of marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in various contexts.
Dissociative identity disorder
Antisocial personality disorder
Borderline personality disorder
1. Which of these is the primary tool used in the United States for the classification of mental disorders?
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
International Classification of Diseases and Related Problems
Disorder Selection Manual
Symptoms and Classification of Disorders (5)
1. The _____ of Schizophrenia are marked by a distortion or an excess of normal function, whereas _____ reflect social withdrawal, behavioral deficits, and the loss or decrease of normal functions.
positive symptoms / negative symptoms
negative symptoms / positive symptoms
physical symptoms / psychic symptoms
psychological symptoms / physical symptoms
1. A fear becomes a phobia when _____.
a doctor diagnoses it as such
an individual will go to any length to avoid the object of the fear
a person can specifically identify what they are afraid of
a person cannot identify the source of their nervous feelings
1. According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, performance is best under conditions of _____ arousal.
1. According to self-determination theory, competence motivation involves _____.
self-efficacy and mastery
maintaining optimal arousal
1. The _____ of an emotion refers to whether it feels pleasant or unpleasant. The _____ of an emotion is the degree to which the emotion is reflected in an individual’s being active, engaged, or excited versus more passive, relatively disengaged, or calm.
arousal level / valence
valence / arousal level
manifestation / valence
valence / manifestation
1. Soccer players are expected to congratulate and shake hands with the opposing team, even when their team loses the game. This is an example of _____.
a display rule
a set point
the two-factor theory of emotion
the Yerkes-Dodson law
1. Adding external rewards to a situation in which the person is already intrinsically motivated to perform usually results in _____.
neutral intrinsic motivation
maximized extrinsic motivation
reduced intrinsic motivation
reduced extrinsic motivation
1. The highest and most elusive of Maslow’s needs is _____.
1. The _____ calms the body.
sympathetic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system
1. You just ran a marathon in very hot weather and perspired heavily. According to drive reduction theory, your body will have a(n) _____ for water, which will produce a(n) _____ for water, which will lead to a(n) _____ to get water.
instinct; motivation; need
instinct; motivation; drive
need; motivation; drive
need; drive; motivation
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