For each of the following, identify the conditions of the independent variable, the dependent variable, their scales of measurement, which measure of central tendency and variability to compute and which scores you would use in the computations.
(a) We test whether participants laugh longer (in seconds) to jokes told on a sunny or rainy day. (b) We test babies whose mothers were or were not recently divorced, measuring whether the babies lost weight, gained weight, or remained the same. (c) We compare a group of adult children of alcoholics to a group whose parents were not alcoholics. In each, we measure participants’ in-come. (d) We count the number of creative ideas produced by participants who are paid either 5, 10, or 50 cents per idea. (e) We measure the number of words in the vocabulary of 2-year-olds as a function of whether they have 0, 1, 2, or 3 older siblings. (f) We compare people 5 years after they have graduated from either high school, a community college, or a four-year college. Considering all participants at once, we rank order their income.